If your Laravel routes aren't working, and you're getting "Not Found" errors whenever you try and load a page, your .htaccess file is likely lacking permission to do its duty.
The key is the apache AllowOverride directive.
If you don't have AllowOverride set to All, your Laravel .htaccess file (/public/.htaccess) won't be able to enable mod_rewrite, and your routes won't work.
The first step is to open your apache httpd.conf file. In OS X, it is located at:
Option 1) Modify your main <Directory> directive
This will change the AllowOverride value for all your websites. In your httpd.conf file, look for the main <Directory> directive:
>... AllowOverride None ...
Simply change it to this:
>... AllowOverride All ...
Option 2) Add a <Directory> directive to your site's <VirtualHost> directive.
Save the changes to your httpd.conf file, restart or reload apache, and your routes should be up-and-running.